Boudica Writing — Zena Ryder, freelance writer
by Margaret Conrad and Alvin Finkel, Pearson Longman, Second Edition
Chapter 2: The First Nations of Canada
 Native Canadians’ oral histories are
(a) taken more seriously by scholars than other sources.
(b) subjected to the same tests of accuracy by scholars as other sources.
(c) ignored by scholars, who consider only written sources to have value.
(d) considered by scholars to be more reliable than the biased histories written down by European settlers.
 Although the origins of the First Nations of the Americas are debated, most scholars argue that
(a) they originated in South America and migrated through Central America to North America.
(b) they are of Australasian origin and migrated across the Pacific to the Americas.
(c) are of Asiatic origin and migrated across land bridges that connected Alaska and Siberia.
(d) they originated in North America and migrated to Asia.
 In the sixteenth century, when the Europeans first encountered the Iroquoian-speaking peoples of the Great Lakes region, they found
(a) nomadic hunter-gather communities of 1500 to 2000 people.
(b) fenced settlements of 1500 to 2000 people.
(c) large camps of wigwams that moved around based on the migration of caribou.
(d) massive, intricately carved totem poles.
 When curious European priests and traders tried to learn more about Aboriginal religion, they
(a) met with many Aboriginal people who shared long stories about their fast-induced visions.
(b) found many Aboriginal people who were eager to convert to Christianity.
(c) discovered that religion was not a major part of Aboriginal life.
(d) were often met with silence because there were strict rules regarding talking about a dream or a vision.
 Warfare between neighbouring Native groups occurred before and after Europeans arrived. Which of the following statements is true about warfare between different Native groups?:
(a) As in Europe, torture and enslavement of captured enemies was rare.
(b) The warfare was much more brutal and the death tolls much higher than in European wars.
(c) As in Europe, captured enemies were often tortured or enslaved.
(d) Unlike in Europe, Native groups usually had the goal of complete extermination of a competing group.
 Consider the attitudes of European settlers and First Nations people towards homosexuality. First Nations people generally
(a) were so violently opposed to homosexuality that people found to be having homosexual relationships were often executed.
(b) were opposed to homosexuality and attempted to discourage homosexual relationships, just as the European settlers did.
(c) didn’t acknowledge the existence of homosexuality and homosexual relationships.
(d) had a more tolerant attitude towards homosexual relationships than the European settlers.
 Which of the following statements is true about First Nation food sources around the time the first European settlers arrived?:
(a) Some First Nations tribes were nomadic or semi-nomadic, following the migration of caribou or other large game.
(b) Some First Nations tribes were settled, agricultural communities.
(c) Some First Nations tribes hunted whales and dolphins.
(d) All of the above.
 When the first Europeans arrived, which First Nation ancestors of today’s Inuit lived in what is now Canada and Greenland?
 Which of the following statements is true regarding social organization among First Nations peoples at the time of the Europeans’ arrival?
(a) Hunter-gatherer communities tended to be the least egalitarian of the Aboriginal peoples.
(b) The Cree and Ojibwa peoples had a strong sense of land ownership.
(c) The Blackfoot developed an armed force under centralized control.
(d) All First Nations shamans were male.
 What was the Five Nations Confederacy?
(a) A group of five First Nations who worked together to reduce the violence between different Aboriginal societies.
(b) A group of five First Nations who banded together to attack the European settlers.
(c) A group of five First Nations who supported the southern states during the American Civil War.
(d) A group of five First Nations who worked together to defend themselves against European violence.
 Slaves in the west coast First Nations societies were
(a) usually the strongest, healthiest men from an enemy tribe captured during wartime.
(b) usually those singled out by a shaman’s pronouncement during a potlatch ceremony.
(c) usually European children who were kidnapped by the First Nations people.
(d) usually women and children from an enemy tribe captured during wartime.
 Which of the following statements is true?:
(a) First Nations peoples developed many different religious and spiritual practices, as well as sports, games, and art forms.
(b) First Nations peoples were very religious and spiritual, but their harsh environment meant that they were unable to indulge in sports and other leisure activities.
(c) First Nations peoples developed sports, games, and art, but religious and spiritual practices were largely absent until the arrival of European Christians.
(d) Compared to European societies, First Nations societies were primitive and unsophisticated — until they learnt about religion, sports, and art from the Europeans.